CAMPUS LIFE AND SAFETY AND SECURITY (CLASS) TASK FORCE 2008 fINAL Report
Survey Results - Self Assessment of Campus Security and Vulnerability to Acts of Terrorism
A total of 86 surveys were completed and returned. Of those 86 responders, 75 are public institutions. Responders consist of career technology centers (39), community colleges (16) and four-year universities (31). Institutions with branch campuses were asked to complete a separate response for each learning site. Only 10 responders reported student headcounts at or above 6,000. Seventy-six percent reported student headcounts below 3,000. The majority (59.3 percent) have no residence halls on campus. There are a reported 29,880 students living in university housing statewide.
Established Campus Emergency Plans
Emergency plans have been developed for fire and tornadic events at all reporting institutions. The next most prevalent emergency plan addresses bomb threats and/or explosions, for which 84 postsecondary institutions (98 percent) have a plan in place. Most (89.5 percent, or 77 institutions) have an emergency plan developed to respond to incidents related to hazardous materials. Seventy-four institutions (86 percent) have an emergency plan for reacting to an active shooter.
Collectively, institutions were less likely to have an emergency plan to deal with emergencies resulting from a threat of terrorism (67.4 percent, 58), pandemic flu (51.8 percent, 44), flood (51.9 percent, 41), earthquake (46.7 percent, 36), and campus-sponsored mass transportation or accident (44.7 percent, 33). Approximately 10 percent of campuses reported both earthquakes and campus-sponsored mass transportation or accidents to be “not applicable.”
Responders reported additional emergency plans in a variety of other areas, including, but not limited to: assault, suicide, rape, missing student, power failure and gas leaks. The majority (84.2 percent) evaluate their emergency operations plan annually. Eleven (12.8 percent) do not complete an annual evaluation. For those who do have an annual evaluation, many (43 institutions) report review by a review committee or team. The composition (or membership) of these committees or teams varies by campus.
Universities are more likely to have a plan developed for floods than either the community colleges or career technology centers. Whereas 73.3 percent of universities report a flood plan, only 30.8 percent of career technology centers and 43.8 percent of community colleges have a flood plan. Private institutions are more likely than public institutions to have an emergency plan developed for floods.
Career technology centers report being less likely to have a plan developed for earthquakes (25.6 percent), whereas 62.5 percent of community colleges and 53.3 percent of universities have an earthquake plan.
Response plans to terrorism threats are less likely to be found at career technology centers (25.6 percent), while 75 percent of community colleges and 83.9 percent of universities have a plan in place.
Crisis Management Teams
Crisis management teams are in place at 78 (90.7 percent) of the responding institutions. Staff members have been assigned responsibilities in order to implement all parts of the institution’s various emergency plans at 71 (82.6 percent) of the campuses. The majority (84.5 percent) have a single individual or department designated to be responsible for the oversight of emergency management plans. The designated title/position/department varies widely across the campuses surveyed. The list includes campus police and public safety officials, campus superintendents, and various vice presidents.
Less than one-third (30.1 percent) of respondents report having a mental health recovery plan at their institutions. Slightly more than two-thirds (66.9 percent) have no mental health recovery plan, and two institutions reported this as “not applicable.” The vast majority (96.5 percent) do have procedures in place for dealing with violence at the institution. This includes workplace and domestic violence scenarios, hostage situations, and disruptive individuals.
Incident Reporting Systems
There is an incident reporting system available to all students and employees at 79 (93 percent) of the responding institutions. Each responding university maintains an incident reporting system available to all students, whereas nine out of 10 of the community colleges and career technology centers indicate that they have a reporting system.
Training related to safety and security procedures is provided annually for faculty and support staff at 70 (81 percent) of the institutions. Career technology centers (92.3 percent) are more likely to have safety and security training for students than community colleges (56.3 percent) or universities (74.2 percent). Overall, training specifically for students on safety and security procedures is provided annually at 79 percent of the institutions.
Just over three-fourths (79.1 percent) of responders developed their institutional emergency plans in cooperation with local law enforcement and other emergency response agencies.
Most (89.5 percent) have incident reporting procedures established for disruptive incidents which take place on institution property. Only nine institutions indicate that they have no reporting procedures in place. Career technology centers are less likely than community colleges and universities to have reporting procedures established for disruptive incidents. Only 45 (52.9 percent) institutions compile disruptive or threatening incident reports recorded into a database that is analyzed on an annual basis to identify recurring safety problems.
Communications With the Public Regarding Plans
Parents, students, faculty and administrators are able to review institutional policies and prevention strategies regarding safety and security at 75 (87.2 percent) of the responding institutions. Career technology centers are less likely to have their policies and prevention strategies available for public review. A crisis communication plan and a crisis communications team are in place on 83 percent of campuses to ensure the release of timely information to the media and parents. Only 55 percent of those teams meet regularly to develop skills, define roles and responsibilities and apply the knowledge developed during practice scenarios. The number is even smaller for private institutions, where only one in 10 has a crisis communication team that meets regularly.
Campus Access by Emergency Responders
Local first responders have vehicle access at all times to 99 percent of the surveyed campuses. There is confidence that first responders maintain adequate familiarity with the campuses to assist during emergencies at 98 percent of the institutions. Most institutions (80.2 percent) have identified an area on campus where law enforcement and other responders could set up command posts in the event of an emergency. Less than two-thirds (64.7 percent) of campuses designate a receiving area for parents and media.
Very few postsecondary institutions (40 percent, 34) advertise a phone number(s) for a crisis hotline. Universities are more likely to advertise crisis hotline phone numbers. Emergency phone access is available throughout campus on 62 percent of the responding campuses.
Annual training sessions on each institution’s various emergency plans are conducted for faculty and staff on 59 percent of campuses. Career technology centers are more likely than community colleges or universities to conduct annual emergency plan training for faculty and staff. For those who do conduct annual training, fire and severe weather preparedness are often featured, but most training sessions also include other emergency plans. Career technology centers are more likely to conduct drills on a regular basis to test the effectiveness and efficiency of their facility's various safety plans and procedures. However, less than two-thirds (61.6 percent) of all responders conduct those drills on a regular basis. Only 26 percent have annual staff training in weapons detection and reporting and in responding to confrontations where weapons are involved. Few institutions (29.1 percent, 25) have staff members trained by law enforcement in the interception of and response to an intruder(s).
Almost all institutions (95.3 percent) reported having at least one certified and one non-certified staff member trained in first aid and CPR. While all responding campuses report having first aid capabilities, only 35 percent have an on-site medical facility. Most institutions (97.8 percent) can identify their primary resources for emergency medical services. Sixty-two percent have coordinated with external emergency medical service providers in the development of their emergency plan, with public institutions more likely to have done so. Just over 60 percent (61.6 percent) of responding institutions have AED (automated external defibrillator) equipment distributed throughout campus and have staff trained to use the equipment. Career technology centers are more likely to have AED equipment and trained staff than are colleges or universities.
Despite the availability of National Incident Management System (NIMS) training, less than one-third (30.9 percent) report that their institution is NIMS compliant. Buildings are patrolled by security staff or police officers at 79 percent of institutions. Career technology centers are less likely to have buildings patrolled by security or police than community colleges and universities. When the patrol is a police officer, he or she is most likely to be a campus officer; however, some campuses use municipal or county officers. Community colleges and universities most often report using a campus officer, whereas career technology centers report using a municipal or county officer. When the patrol is a security guard, he or she is most likely to be unarmed (68.8 percent).
Institutions are most likely to have a security plan that concentrates on fire prevention (95.3 percent) and evacuation (97.7 percent) for each of their buildings. However, security plans also address other issues, including first aid (84.7 percent), hazardous material (83.7 percent), building access (77.6 percent), classroom access (71.8 percent), interior rooms (67.9 percent) and visitor access (63.1 percent).
All career technology centers report that their security plans address first aid for each of their buildings, whereas only four in five community colleges and universities have addressed building-specific first aid in their plans. Two of the 16 community colleges in the survey report not having addressed evacuation for each building in their security plans. Career technology centers are more likely to have a security plan for each of their buildings that focuses on visitor access. Only one-third of community colleges have addressed visitor access to buildings.
Nearly 85 percent (84.9 percent) of institutions do not give all visitors a badge, sticker or other means to identify them as visitors to the campus, and only 61 percent have visitor parking clearly marked and in a highly visible location. One in four career technology centers indicate that all visitors receive a badge or sticker identifying them as visitors to the campus, whereas less than one in 10 of the community colleges and universities identify visitors with a badge or sticker.
The capability to notify all faculty to lock classroom doors in an emergency only exists at 52 (60.5 percent) of the reporting institutions. More than nine out of 10 career technology centers report that they have the capability to notify all instructors to lock classroom doors, while only one-fourth of community colleges and one-third of universities are able to do so.
Facility and Campus Maintenance
In most cases (93 percent), all areas of the campus or facility are adequately lighted. Respondents also indicated the existence of emergency lighting in a variety of campus facilities. These include corridors (97.6 percent), auditoriums (98.7 percent), cafeterias (98.3 percent), gymnasiums (92.1 percent) and stadiums (69.6 percent).
The majority (92.8 percent) of institutions can verify that no unvented, fuel-fired heating equipment is being used. All institutions report that at least one person on staff knows where to locate electrical panels, water valves and gas valves in each of their facilities and that at least one person also knows how to shut each of those off. Ninety-six percent report that mechanical rooms and other hazardous material storage areas are marked and kept locked at all times. Two institutions (2.3 percent) reported this as “not applicable.” Combustible material(s) retained in storage areas are kept 36 inches away from electrical equipment at all but two institutions. Of those two, one reported the topic as “not applicable” and the other reported that combustible material(s) were not kept 36 inches away from electrical equipment. Most institutions reported that there is restricted access to a number of institutional assets. These include roofs (96.5 percent), heating systems (95.3 percent), air-conditioning systems (87.1 percent) and ventilation systems (88.1 percent).
Eighty institutions (95.2 percent) report that grounds are properly lighted for night activities. Only 69 percent indicated that external lights, especially those in high-risk areas, are equipped with break-resistant lenses. Shrubs and trees are situated and trimmed to permit good visual surveillance to all parts of campus at 89 percent of the institutions. Less than one-half (43.9 percent) of respondents indicated that institutional buildings (including portable) have internal security fire alarms and automatic fire control sprinklers. All institutions report that their fire alarm systems are inspected annually. For 93 percent of institutions, fire prevention personnel have inspected facilities within the past two years to provide prevention suggestions.
A blueprint or layout of the institution (including evacuation exits) is kept on file at 93 percent of the reporting institutions; however, only 58 percent of these institutions keep blueprints on file with community police and/or fire fighters. Just over three-fourths (77.4 percent) of institutions have aerial photographs of institution grounds and border areas.
Very few postsecondary institutions (18.6 percent) reported having burglar alarms installed at all campus buildings. Ninety-one percent have their alarm systems maintained annually. In the event the alarm goes off, 73 percent indicate that the local police and fire departments are alerted.
Contact With and Identification of Students and Staff
Knowing who is employed on the campus is important in the case of an emergency. An employee roster which includes emergency contact numbers is kept by 79 responding institutions (92.9 percent). Community colleges are less likely to have an employee roster on file including emergency contact numbers than career technology centers or universities. Sixty-six (78.6 percent) institutions keep at least one copy of the roster off institution grounds.
Only 54 (63.5 percent) institutions have a photograph on file of each student. Universities were more likely to retain a photograph of each of their students. And private institutions are more likely to have a photograph of each student than public institutions. Only about half of the career technology centers and community colleges have a photograph of each student. Only 25 (32.9 percent) of all postsecondary institutions keep file copies off institution grounds. The majority of institutions have emergency contact information for students (98.8 percent), staff (91.9 percent), faculty (91.8 percent) and facility managers (92.8 percent).
Slightly more than three-fourths (76.8 percent) maintain a list of students with special medical needs and/or those who require medication. Those students and faculty requiring assistance during an evacuation have been identified on 86 percent of campuses. Fourteen percent do not know which students and personnel might require special assistance. Public institutions are more likely to know which students or staff members with special needs would require assistance during an evacuation.
Institutions use a variety of methods to initiate campus-wide emergency notification. These include e-mail (93 percent), Web site (91.9 percent), public address systems (59.3 percent), reverse 911 (25 percent) and blue phones (17.1 percent). Career technology centers are more likely to have public address systems that can be used for campus-wide emergency notification than community colleges and universities. Universities and community colleges are more likely than career technology centers to have campus-wide emergency notification Web sites. Universities are more likely to report having blue phones as part of their campus-wide emergency notification capabilities.
Just over one-half of responding institutions (51.2 percent) report having an emergency generator on campus. While more than three-fourths of all universities report having an emergency generator on campus, less than half of career technology centers and community colleges have them. Sixty-three percent indicate that in the event of a power failure, their alarm and phone systems are still operational. Seventy-eight percent report that their facility has redundant and/or backup communication capabilities. Communication is possible between the main office and all teaching areas at 58 percent of the reporting institutions. More career technology centers are able to communicate between the main office and all teaching areas than community colleges and universities.
There is a wide range of security measures that campuses take to assist in protecting their computer systems. For the reporting institutions, these include virus protection (100 percent), password procedures (100 percent), firewalls (98.8 percent), computer access control (95.2 percent), information encryption (82.7 percent) and intrusion detection systems (80 percent). Many campuses (78.3 percent) have redundant and/or backup computer systems. Community colleges and universities are more likely to report that they have information encryption in place for their computer systems.
Business Continuity Capabilities
A clear understanding of institutional assets and contingency protocols is important to critical incident recovery. An up-to-date inventory of equipment and valuable property is kept by 94 percent of reporting institutions, and 59 percent of those keep at least one copy of the inventory off institution grounds. More than three-fourths (81.4 percent) of survey respondents keep institution files and records in a fireproof safe or storage area. All but two career technology centers (97 percent) report that their institution files and records are kept in a fireproof safe or storage area, whereas only a little more than half of the community colleges and 80.2 percent of the universities have such protection for their files and records.
Only 43 percent of postsecondary institutions have a business continuity of operations plan (BCOP). Less than 20 percent of career technology centers report having a BCOP, but two-thirds of the community colleges and universities maintain them. Of those postsecondary institutions with a BCOP, nearly two-thirds (65.9 percent) include alternative off-site support/facilities.